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30 years' war

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The 30 Years War The 30 Years War was a political and religious war that lasted from 1618-1648. [70] Two months later, the Swedes won a resounding victory at Lützen, where Gustavus was killed. [95], The Peace of Münster was the first to be signed on 30 January 1648; it was part of Westphalia because the provinces that made up the Dutch Republic were still technically part of the Spanish Netherlands and thus Imperial territories. Ferdinand won after a five-year struggle. [36], On 19 August, the Bohemian Estates rescinded Ferdinand's 1617 election as king, and on 26th, formally offered the crown to Frederick instead; two days later, Ferdinand was elected Emperor, making war inevitable if Frederick accepted. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The French now persuaded the Catalan Courts to recognise Louis XIII as Count of Barcelona, and ruler of the Principality of Catalonia. The Thirty Years’ War profoundly altered Europe’s political landscape and social fabric. These actions were greeted with approval by his domestic critics, who considered his pro-Spanish policy a betrayal of the Protestant cause. [28], Another was Frederick V, Elector Palatine, who succeeded his father in 1610, and in 1613 married Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I of England. [129], Arguably, France gained more from the Thirty Years' War than any other power; by 1648, most of Richelieu's objectives had been achieved. From 1618 to 1648 a series of conflicts engulfed much of Europe. THIRTY YEARS' WAR. [102], The settlement failed to achieve its stated intention of achieving a 'universal peace'; Mazarin insisted on excluding the Burgundian Circle from the treaty of Münster, allowing France to continue its campaign against Spain in the Low Countries, a war that continued until the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. 1 The Prague Defenestration 2 The Battle of White Mountain 3 The Danish War 4 The Swedish War 5 The Franco-Swedish Phase This war's roots go back to the Reformation and the spread of … The war originated with dual crises at the continent’s centre: one in the Rhineland and the other in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire.…, The Bohemian problem was resolved swiftly. [38], By abandoning Frederick, the German princes hoped to restrict the dispute to Bohemia, but Maximilian's dynastic ambitions made this impossible. In an event known as the Third Defenestration of Prague, the two men and their secretary Philip Fabricius were thrown out of the castle windows, although all three survived. The Thirty Years' War was one of the bloodiest events in European history — deadlier than the Black Death and World War II, in terms of the proportion of the population lost. Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in March 1619, since it convinced many the Habsburgs were fatally damaged. [88], France and Savoy made peace in the April 1629 Treaty of Suza, which allowed French troops passage through Savoy, and recognised their control of Casale and Pinerolo. Especially since its Lutheran leader, Christian IV, was also a duke of the Holy Roman Empire. It includes factors unrelated to death or disease, such as permanent migration to areas outside the Empire, or lower birthrates, a less obvious impact of extended warfare. [32], Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austria, where much of the nobility was also Protestant. [119] They originated in the Bishopric of Würzburg, an area with a history of such events going back to 1616 and now re-ignited by Bishop von Ehrenberg, a devout Catholic eager to assert the church's authority in his territories. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. [49], In the June 1624 Treaty of Compiègne, France subsidised the Dutch war against Spain for a minimum of three years. By 1623, Spanish-Imperial forces controlled the Palatinate. Frederick fled Bohemia and the revolt collapsed. Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and abandoning support for the German Protestants. The 1555 Peace of Augsburg was intended to end conflict between German Protestants and Catholics by establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. The war originated in differences between German Protestants and Catholics, which were temporarily settled by the 1555 Peace of Augsburg but was gradually undermined by political and religious tensions. [34], By mid-June, the Bohemian army under Thurn was outside Vienna; Mansfeld's defeat by Spanish-Imperial forces at Sablat forced him to return to Prague, but Ferdinand's position continued to worsen. This allowed Bavaria, Brandenburg-Prussia, Saxony and others to pursue their own policies, while Sweden gained a permanent foothold in the Empire. With the exception of the 1639 to 1642 Piedmontese Civil War, this secured the French position in Northern Italy for the next twenty years. Thirty Years War is a new game designed by developer HQ covering one of the darkest ages of European history. The Thirty Years' War was fought from 1618 until 1648.Though it was primarily centered in Germany, several other countries became involved in the conflict, including France, Spain, and Sweden.In fact, almost all of the powerful countries in Europe were involved in the war. asked the tavern drinkers in Goethe’s Faust—and the answer is no easier to find today than in the late 18th, or early 17th, century. Catholic France also entered the war, but not on the Catholic side. The combination destabilised large parts of the Empire. A brief treatment of the Thirty Years’ War follows. [128], The benefits of Westphalia for the Swedes proved short-lived. In May, a combined Franco-Swedish army destroyed the last major Imperial army at Zusmarshausen, while a second Swedish force besieged Prague. Spain had lost not only the Netherlands but its dominant position in western Europe. Thirty Years' War is a game designed by HQ and it covers one of the darkest ages of European history. History of Europe - History of Europe - The Thirty Years’ War: The war originated with dual crises at the continent’s centre: one in the Rhineland and the other in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire. Here, in the heartland of Europe, three denominations vied for dominance: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism. [27], Since Emperor Matthias had no surviving children, in July 1617 Philip III of Spain agreed to support Ferdinand's election as king of Bohemia and Hungary. Appointed to rule the Duchy of Styria in 1595, within eighteen months he eliminated Protestantism in what was previously a stronghold of the Reformation. The income from their imperial possessions remained in Germany and did not benefit the kingdom of Sweden; although they retained Swedish Pomerania until 1815, much of it was ceded to Prussia in 1679 and 1720. While Denmark kept Schleswig and Holstein until 1864, this effectively ended its reign as the predominant Nordic state. [57], Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. Speaking you made more money thou bigger your army was (by ruing the province you were in). AIDS The 30 years war. Hard pounding is gradually bringing AIDS under control. [109] Poor harvests throughout the 1630s and repeated plundering of the same areas led to widespread famine; contemporaries record people eating grass, or too weak to accept alms, while instances of cannibalism were common. [24], One outcome was the formation of the Protestant Union, led by Frederick IV and largely composed of states in Southern Germany, to which Maximilian responded by setting up the Catholic League in July 1609. 17th century Europe was a highly structured and socially conservative society, and their lack of enthusiasm was due to the implications of removing a legally elected ruler, regardless of religion. Leopold suffered 20,000 casualties, including 5,000 prisoners and 46 guns, compared to Swedish losses of 4,000 killed or wounded. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. The Thirty Years' War was one of the bloodiest events in European history — deadlier than the Black Death and World War II, in terms of the proportion of the population lost. Votes: 390 The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex, and no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting. The Thirty Years War, a multifaceted and multinational political and military conflict that raged over central Europe between 1618 and 1648 has often been considered, at least in the scope of misery and destruction it brought to those experiencing it, as a disaster comparable to, if not greater than, the two world wars and the Black Death. By the end of the war, the shape of Europe had been greatly changed. While both were primarily designed to support the dynastic ambitions of their leaders, they combined with events like the 1609 to 1614 War of the Jülich Succession to increase tensions throughout the Empire. It does not appear to have reversed ongoing macro-economic trends, such as the reduction of price differentials between regional markets, and a greater degree of market integration across Europe. [87], French policy was to seek to disrupt this road wherever possible, either by attacking the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan, or by blocking the Alpine passes. The Thirty Years War is a war fought in the pre-industrial age, so loss of human life and indeed of animals cannot be replaced by machinery. It was started in 1618 by Ferdinand II, whose rise to the monarchy was marked by great dubiety on … The war has a truly lasting impact on the population of central Europe. Catholic France also entered the war, but not on the Catholic side. The United Netherlands was recognized as an independent republic. For some time, Holy Roman armies, aided by catholic princes, succeded in holding their own against the Swedes and German Protestants. In 1651, Spain recaptured Barcelona, ending the revolt. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Thirty-Years-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Thirty Years War, Thirty Years’ War - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Thirty Years’ War - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Europe, history of: The Thirty Years’ War, Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimental, count-duke de Olivares, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne. The principal battlefield for all these intermittent conflicts was the towns and principalities of Germany, which suffered severely. Although the battle was far from decisive, the rebels were demoralised by lack of pay, shortages of supplies and disease, while the countryside had been devastated by Imperial troops. The Thirty Years' War was a massive continental clusterfuck European religious war fought between 1618 and 1648. He concluded "about 40% of the rural population fell victim to the war and epidemics; in the cities,...33%". [97], Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. Ferdinand paid Wallenstein by letting him confiscate estates, extort ransoms from towns, and allowing his men to plunder the lands they passed through, regardless of whether they belonged to allies or opponents. Despite these setbacks, the Habsburg lands suffered less from the war than many others and became a far more coherent bloc with the absorption of Bohemia, and restoration of Catholicism throughout their territories. All across Europe, but mostly in central Germany WHO? [63], Expectations of widespread support proved unrealistic; by the end of 1630, the only new Swedish ally was Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly. [107] Well into the 19th century, the leading cause of mortality even for soldiers was disease; of an estimated 600,000 military deaths between 1618 and 1648, only 200,000 were killed in combat. The Thirty Years’ War profoundly altered Europe’s political landscape and social fabric. [67] He won major victories at Breitenfeld in September 1631, then Rain in April 1632, where Tilly was killed. The Dutch destroyed a large supply convoy at the Battle of the Downs in October 1639, while Madrid's inability to prevent attacks on Portuguese possessions in Africa and the Americas caused increasing unrest in Portugal, then part of the Spanish Empire. [80], After Wittstock, the Swedish army regained the initiative in Germany; at Second Breitenfeld in October 1642, Swedish commander Lennart Torstenson defeated an Imperial army led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and Ottavio Piccolomini. This was exacerbated by several legal disputes over property, all of which were decided in favour of the Catholic Church. The Thirty Years' War was a major conflict that occurred in Europe from1618 to1648. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. Twentieth-century wars such as World Wars I and II, by contrast, were fought overseas; few Americans on the homefront saw any type of direct engagement during these. [47] In 1621, Hamburg accepted Danish 'supervision', while his son Frederick became joint-administrator of Lübeck, Bremen and Verden. [106], The war has been described as one of the greatest medical catastrophes in history. The Thirty Years' War was a major conflict that occurred in Europe from1618 to1648. [43], At a meeting of the Imperial Diet in February 1623, Ferdinand forced through provisions transferring Frederick's titles, lands and electoral vote to Maximilian. List of every major Thirty Years' War battle, including photos, images, or maps of the most famous Thirty Years' War battles when available. [105] While the Thirty Years War ranks as one of the worst of these events, precise numbers are disputed; 19th century nationalists often increased them to illustrate the dangers of a divided Germany. For example, many of the earliest American wars were fought on American soil. Free Shipping by Amazon ... From The Fall of Constantinople to the Thirty Years War. Includes soldiers from the Spanish Netherlands and Spanish Italy. Thirty Years’ War, (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. Their attribution by some to supernatural causes led to a series of Witch-hunts, beginning in Franconia in 1626 and quickly spreading to other parts of Germany, which were often exploited for political purposes. The crisis had a constitutional and political as well as a religious dimension. A Spanish offensive in 1636 reached Corbie in Northern France; although it caused panic in Paris, lack of supplies forced them to retreat, and it was not repeated. Lack of a sense of 'shared community' resulted in atrocities such as the destruction of Magdeburg, while creating large numbers of refugees, who were extremely susceptible to sickness and hunger. [19], Managing these issues was complicated by the fragmented nature of the Empire, a patchwork of nearly 1,800 separate entities in Germany, the Low Countries, Northern Italy, and areas like Alsace, now part of modern France. Two Roman Catholic armies, the emperor’s and the League’s, converged on the kingdom, routing Frederick at the White Mountain in November 1620 and replacing the regime of the estates in Bohemia…, In 1620, following the defeat of Frederick V (the elector palatine, or prince, from the Rhineland who had accepted the crown of Bohemia when it was offered to him in 1618) and the Bohemians, Spanish troops from the Netherlands entered the “Winter…. They ranged in size and importance from the seven Prince-electors who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, down to Prince-bishoprics and City-states, such as Hamburg. [66] Payments amounted to 400,000 Reichstaler, or one million livres per year, plus an additional 120,000 Reichstalers for 1630. This new assault on 'German liberties' ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success. Funded by Frederick and the Duke of Savoy, a mercenary army under Ernst von Mansfeld succeeded in stabilising the Bohemian position over the winter of 1618. This threw them on the countryside for their supplies, and thus began the “wolf-strategy” that typified this war. Ferdinand still resisted signing, but after France gained a crushing victory over Spain at Lens in August, and with Swedish troops attacking Prague, he finally did so on 24 October 1648. [22], These tensions gradually undermined Augsburg, and paralysed institutions like the Imperial diet designed to resolve them peacefully. The Thirty Years’ War had a profound impact on Europe, and some of the consequences of this war can be seen in the changes that were made to European society. The Peace of Westphalia, which brought the brutalities of the Thirty Years’ War to an end in 1648, still looms large as a major turning point in the history of both international law and international politics. The Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand first required the return of all property taken from the Catholic church since 1552, rather than leaving the courts to decide case by case as previously. Introduction. In this strategy game, players will take control of one of the opposing sides, Protestants or Catholics, and fight for the control of the Empire. This year marks the centenary of the end of the First World War, but that’s not the only major commemoration on our current calendars. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. While technically legal, politically it was extremely unwise, since doing so would alter nearly every single state boundary in North and Central Germany, deny the existence of Calvinism and restore Catholicism in areas where it had not been a significant presence for nearly a century. Almost four centuries on, the Thirty Years’ War teaches us how protracted conflict can bring about famine and spell disaster for … [58], Made over-confident by success, in March 1629 Ferdinand passed an Edict of Restitution, which required all lands taken from the Catholic church after 1555 to be returned. Eventually, however, it came to involve political control and territory as well. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. [83] As with Rocroi, Condé was unable to fully exploit this success and his losses shocked the French court. Outcome of Thirty Years War The result of the thirty year war was that the German princes could choose their own religion, as long as it was one of the big three . Intended as the basis of a wider coalition against Ferdinand, France, Sweden, Savoy and the Republic of Venice were also invited to join, but it was overtaken by events. A parallel struggle involved the rivalry of France with the Habsburgs of the empire and with the Habsburgs of Spain, who had been attempting to construct a cordon of anti-French alliances. Lut… Five days later, the Prince de Condé won a decisive French victory at Rocroi, although he was unable to take full advantage. The conflict can be split into two main parts. Meanwhile the conflict widened, fueled by political ambitions of the various powers. 1 The Prague Defenestration 2 The Battle of White Mountain 3 The Danish War 4 The Swedish War 5 The Franco-Swedish Phase This war's roots go back to the Reformation and the spread of … This was the reason behind Spanish involvement in the Jülich dispute; by 1618, the only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate. Overall, the struggle was between the Holy Roman Empire, which was Roman Catholic and Habsburg, and a network of Protestant towns and principalities that relied on the chief anti-Catholic powers of Sweden and the United Netherlands, which had at last thrown off the yoke of Spain after a struggle lasting 80 years. Brandenburg-Prussia received Farther Pomerania, and the bishoprics of Magdeburg, Halberstadt, Kammin, and Minden. Prompted by France, the rebels proclaimed the Catalan Republic in January 1641. It entered the war against the emperor and against Spain on the side of Protestant allies. Science & technology Jun 2nd 2011 edition. [59], As ever, Richelieu's policy was to 'arrest the course of Spanish progress', and 'protect her neighbours from Spanish oppression'. In all these areas, war, famine and disease inflicted severe losses on local populations. In May 1625, the Lower Saxony kreis elected Christian their military commander, although not without resistance; Saxony and Brandenburg viewed Denmark and Sweden as competitors, and wanted to avoid either becoming involved in the Empire. [64] Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave. Corrections? A better question would be who DIDN'T take part. Almost four centuries on, the Thirty Years’ War teaches us how protracted conflict can … He began negotiations with Wallenstein, who despite his recent victories was concerned by the prospect of Swedish intervention, and thus anxious to make peace. [101] It also disappointed many exiles by accepting the restoration of Catholicism as the dominant religion in Bohemia, Upper and Lower Austria, strongholds of Protestantism in 1618. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). By weakening the Habsburgs while increasing the status of France and Sweden, it led to a new balance of power on the continent. Omissions? While this gave them seats in the Imperial Diet, it also brought them conflict with both Brandenburg-Prussia and Saxony, who were competitors in Pomerania. In 1556, Habsburg Spain became a separate entity, while retaining Imperial states such as the Duchy of Milan, and interests in Bohemia and Hungary; the two often co-operated, but their objectives did not always align. See more. [31], Ferdinand reconfirmed Protestant religious freedoms when elected king of Bohemia in May 1617, but his record in Styria led to the suspicion he was only awaiting a chance to overturn them. The Thirty Years' War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg, pronounced [ˈdʁaɪ̯sɪçˌjɛːʁɪɡɐ kʁiːk] (listen)) was a conflict primarily fought in Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. And it was this upheaval – not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll. Updates? Eventually, more than 200 states, great and small, participated in the Thirty Years’ War. [29], The Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would rather see his lands destroyed than tolerate heresy for a single day. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf; he was allowed to annex Donauwörth to recover his costs, turning a Lutheran town Catholic. The advance quickly fell apart; Mansfeld was defeated at Dessau Bridge in April, and when Maurice refused to support him, Christian of Brunswick fell back on Wolfenbüttel, where he died of disease shortly after. [122] Mainz and Trier also witnessed the mass killing of suspected witches, as did Cologne, where Ferdinand of Bavaria presided over a particularly infamous series of witchcraft trials, including that of Katharina Henot, who was executed in 1627. Director: Karel Zeman | Stars: Petr Kostka, Emília Vásáryová, Miroslav Holub, Karel Effa. [110], The modern consensus is the population of the Holy Roman Empire declined from 18 to 20 million in 1600 to 11–13 million in 1650, and did not reach pre-war levels until 1750. The defection of their German allies led France to join the war directly, which continued until Westphalia in 1648. [16] Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Portuguese Restoration War. When Frederick refused to admit defeat, the war expanded into the Palatinate, whose strategic importance drew in external powers, notably the Dutch Republic and Spain. Chronic financial weakness meant prior to 1619 the Austrian Habsburgs had no standing army of any size, leaving them dependent on Maximilian and their Spanish relatives for money and men. This meant each of the 224 member states was either Lutheran, the most usual form of Protestantism, or Catholic, based on the choice made by their ruler. [127], By laying the foundations of the modern nation state, Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects and their rulers. [41], Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. Regardless of religion, most German princes refused to support him, and by early 1620, the Bohemian Revolt had been suppressed. [21], Before Augsburg, unity of religion compensated for lack of strong central authority; once removed, it presented opportunities for those who sought to further weaken it. 'S army took refuge in the Empire the modern nation state, Westphalia changed relationship... Catholic Church, war, many of the headphones of delinquents Swedes and German Protestants a major that... Felt that it 's sovereignty as a result of the earliest American wars were on... Legal institutions, reconfirmed the Augsburg settlement, and ruler of the electors were Catholic, three later... Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) of alliances as and! 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